Grogan v. Blooming Grove Volunteer Ambulance Corps

(United States Second Circuit) – In this civil rights suit brought pursuant to 42 U.S.C. section 1983, in which plaintiff alleges that defendant volunteer ambulance corps and several of its directors violated her First and Fourteenth Amendment rights by levying disciplinary charges against her without a hearing, summary judgment in favor of defendants and dismissal of plaintiff’s federal constitutional claims is affirmed, where: 1) emergency medical care and general ambulance services are not “traditionally exclusive public functions”; 2) extensive State regulation and oversight does not therefore entwine defendant with the State; and 3) defendant’s conduct does not amount to state action.