US v. Joyce

(United States Ninth Circuit) – Affirmed a criminal conviction for violating antitrust laws where the defendant was convicted of conspiring to suppress and restrain competition by rigging bids. Defendant argued that the matter should be adjudicated under a rule-of-reason analysis. However, because bid rigging is a per-se violation of the Sherman Act, the Ninth Circuit held that the district court did not err by refusing to allow evidence of the alleged ameliorative effects of his conduct.